Advanced Usage


bravado validates the schema against the Swagger 2.0 Spec. Validations are also done on the requests and the responses.

Validation example:

pet = Pet(id="I should be integer :(", name="tommy")

will result in an error like so:

TypeError: id's value: 'I should be integer :(' should be in types (<type 'long'>, <type 'int'>)


If you’d like to disable validation of outgoing requests, you can set validate_requests to False in the config passed to SwaggerClient.from_url(...).

The same holds true for incoming responses with the validate_responses config option.

Adding Request Headers

bravado allows you to pass request headers along with any request.

Pet = client.get_model('Pet')
Category = client.get_model('Category')
pet = Pet(id=42, name="tommy", category=Category(id=24))
    _request_options={"headers": {"foo": "bar"}},


bravado provides docstrings to operations and models to quickly get the parameter and response types. Due to an implementation limitation, an operation’s docstring looks like a class docstring instead of a function docstring. However, the most useful information about parameters and return type is present in the Docstring section.


The help built-in does not work as expected for docstrings. Use the ? method instead.


Type:       CallableOperation
String Form:<bravado.client.CallableOperation object at 0x241b5d0>
File:       /some/dir/bravado/bravado/
Definition:, **op_kwargs)
[GET] Find pet by ID

Returns a single pet

:param petId: ID of pet to return
:type petId: integer
:returns: 200: successful operation
:rtype: object
:returns: 400: Invalid ID supplied
:returns: 404: Pet not found
Constructor Docstring::type operation: :class:`bravado_core.operation.Operation`
Call def:, **op_kwargs)
Call docstring:
Invoke the actual HTTP request and return a future that encapsulates
the HTTP response.

:rtype: :class:`bravado.http_future.HTTPFuture`

Docstrings for models can be retrieved as expected:

>> pet_model = petstore.get_model('Pet')
>> pet_model?

Type:       type
String Form:<class 'bravado_core.model.Pet'>
File:       /some/dir/bravado_core/

category: Category
id: integer
name: string
photoUrls: list of string
status: string - pet status in the store
tags: list of Tag
Constructor information:
 Definition:pet_type(self, **kwargs)

Default Values

bravado uses the default values from the spec if the value is not provided in the request.

In the Pet Store example, operation findPetsByStatus has a default of available. That means, bravado will plug that value in if no value is provided for the parameter.

Loading swagger.json by file path

bravado also accepts swagger.json from a file path. Like so:

client = SwaggerClient.from_url('file:///some/path/swagger.json')

Alternatively, you can also use the load_file helper method.

from bravado.swagger_model import load_file

client = SwaggerClient.from_spec(load_file('/path/to/swagger.json'))

Getting access to the HTTP response

The default behavior for a service call is to return the swagger result like so:

pet =

However, there are times when it is necessary to have access to the actual HTTP response so that the HTTP headers or HTTP status code can be used. This is easily done via configuration to return a (swagger result, http response) tuple from the service call.

petstore = Swagger.from_url(..., config={'also_return_response': True})
pet, http_response =
assert isinstance(http_response, bravado_core.response.IncomingResponse)
print http_response.headers
print http_response.status_code